Ud. está en: Contenidos > Efluentes Lquidos y Gaseosos> Tratamientos> Viabilidad de un Proceso para la Eliminacin conjunta de H2S Y NH3 contenido en Efluentes Gaseosos. Parte 14

Viabilidad de un Proceso para la Eliminacin conjunta de H2S Y NH3 contenido en Efluentes Gaseosos. Parte 14

Fecha de Publicación: 28/4/2017





Martín Ramírez Muñoz

TESIS DOCTORAL
UNIVERSIDAD DE CÁDIZ
FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS
Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Tecnología de Alimentos y Tecnologías del Medio Ambiente

La presente Tesis ha sido co-dirigida por los Doctores D. Domingo Cantero Moreno, Catedrático de Ingeniería Química y D. José Manuel Gómez Montes de Oca, Profesor Titular de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad de Cádiz, y cumple los requisitos exigidos por la legislación vigente.
Fdo.: Dr. D. Domingo Cantero Moreno Fdo.: Dr. D. José Manuel Gómez Montes de Oca
Fdo.: Dr. D. José María Quiroga Alonso
Director del Dpto. de Ingeniería Química, Tecnología de Alimentos y Tecnologías del Medio Ambiente
Universidad de Cádiz


6.3.RECTAS DE CALIBRADO
6.3.1. Medición de sulfato

El gráfico de la Figura 114 representa la recta de calibrado obtenida para la medición de sulfato. Las líneas discontinuas son para un margen de confianza del 95%.

Efluentes Gaseosos

El coeficiente de regresión lineal fue de 0,9974, el valor de la pendiente de la recta de 75,4271 y la ordenada en el origen de 5,7992.

6.3.2. Medición de amoniaco

El gráfico de la Figura 115 representa la recta de calibrado obtenida para la medición de amoniaco. Las líneas discontinuas son para un margen de confianza del 95%.

Efluentes Gaseosos

El coeficiente de regresión lineal fue de 0,9993, el valor de la pendiente de la recta de 6,933 y la ordenada en el origen de -0,035.

6.3.3. Medición de nitrito

El gráfico de la Figura 116 representa la recta de calibrado obtenida para la medición de nitrito. Las líneas discontinuas son para un margen de confianza del 95%.

Efluentes Gaseosos

El coeficiente de regresión lineal fue de 0,9982, el valor de la pendiente de la recta de 0,3646 y la ordenada en el origen de -0,0280.

6.3.4. Medición de H2S fase gas

La Figura 117 muestra una recta de calibrado realizada con el sensor especifico para H2S.

Efluentes Gaseosos

El coeficiente de regresión lineal fue de 0,9980, el valor de la pendiente de la recta de 0,2542 y la ordenada en el origen de -9,7849.

6.3.5. Medición de NH3 fase gas

La Figura 118 muestra una recta de calibrado realizada con el sensor especifico para NH3

Efluentes Gaseosos

El coeficiente de regresión lineal fue de 0,9988, el valor de la pendiente de la recta de 0,3407y la ordenada en el origen de -14,4072.

 

7. BIBLIOGRAFÍA

Æsøy A, Ødegaard H, Bentzen G. 1998. The effect of sulphide and organic matter on the nitrification activity in a biofilm process. Water Science and Technology 37(1):115.

Aizpuru A, Malhautier L, Fanlo JL. 2002. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling of Biofiltration Removal. Journal of Environmental Engineering (Reston, VA, United States) 128(10):953-959.

Alonso C, Zhu X, Suidan MT, Kim BR, Kim BJ. 1999. Mathematical model for the biodegradation of VOCs in trickle bed biofilters. Water Science and Technology 39(7):139-146.

Amanullah M, Farooq S, Viswanathan S. 1999. Modeling and simulation of a biofilter. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 38(7):2765.

Anthonisen AC, Loehr RC, Prakasam TBS, Srinath EG. 1976. Inhibition of nitrification by ammonia and nitrous acid. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 48(5):835.

Bach. 1923. Sulfur in sewage. Gesundheits-Ingenieur 46:370-7.

Baquerizo G, Maestre JP, Sakuma T, Deshusses MA, Gamisans X, Gabriel D, Lafuente J. 2005. A detailed model of a biofilter for ammonia removal: Model parameters analysis and model validation. Chemical Engineering Journal (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 113(2-3):205-214.

Beccari M, Passino R, Ramadori R, Tandoi V. 1980. Inhibitory effects on nitrification by typical compounds in coke plant wastewaters. Environmental Technology Letters 1(5):245.

Bentzen G, Smith AT, Bennett D, Webster NJ, Reinholt F, Sletholt E, Hobson J. 1995. Controlled dosing of nitrate for prevention of H2S in a sewer network and the effects on the subsequent treatment processes. Water Science and Technology 31(7):293.

Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT. 2006. Bergey’s Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Springer US.

Brüser T, Lens PNL, Trüper HG. 2000. The Biological Sulfur Cycle. In: Lents P, Hulshoff Pol L, editors. Environmetal Technologies to Treat Sulfur Pollution: Principles and Engineering. London: IWA Publishing. p 547.

Buisman CJN, Geraats BG, Ijspeert P, Lettinga G. 1990. Optimization of sulfur production in a biotechnological sulfide-removing reactor. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 35(1):50-6.

Buonicore AJ. 2000. Control of gaseous pollutants. Condensation. In: Wayne T. Davis, editor. Air Pollution Engineering Manual. Second ed: John Wiley & Sons.

Burch R, Southward BWL. 2001. The nature of the active metal surface of catalysts for the clean combustion of biogas containing ammonia. Journal of Catalysis 198(2):286.

Busca G, Pistarino C. 2003. Abatement of ammonia and amines from waste gases: A summary. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 16(2):157.

Cadena F, Peters RW. 1988. Evaluation of chemical oxidizers for hydrogen sulfide control. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 60(7):1259.

Carson P, Mumford CJ. 2002. Hazardous Chemicals Handbook: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. 568 p.

Clegg SL, Brimblecombe P. 1989. Solubility of ammonia in pure aqueous and multicomponent solutions. Journal of Physical Chemistry 93(20):7237.

Clescerl LS, Greenberg AE, Eaton AD. 1989. Standards Methods for Examination of water and wastewater. APHA/AWWA/WPCF. Association APH, editor.

Cline C, Hoksberg A, Abry R, Janssen A. 2003. Biological process for H2S removal from gas streams the Shell-Paques/THIOPAQ gas desulfurization process. LRGCC Conference Proceedings 53rd:1-18.

Cohen Y. 2001. Biofiltration - the treatment of fluids by microorganisms immobilized into the filter bedding material: a review. Bioresource Technology 77(3):257-274.

Cox HHJ, Deshusses MA. 2002. Co-treatment of H2S and toluene in a biotrickling filter. Chemical Engineering Journal 87(1):101-110.

Critoph RE. 2002. Multiple bed regenerative adsorption cycle using the monolithic carbonammonia pair. Applied Thermal Engineering 22(6):667.

Chang C-T. 2006. Biofiltration of hydrogen sulfide-containing waste gas by entrapped mixed microbial cells. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers 29(5):777-782.

Chang SW, Hyman MR, Williamson KJ. 2002. Cooxidation of naphthalene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the nitrifying bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea. Biodegradation 13(6):373.

Chen YX, Yin J, Fang S. 2004a. Biological removal of air loaded with a hydrogen sulfide and ammonia mixture. Journal of Environmental Sciences (Beijing, China) 16(4):656-661.

Chen YX, Yin J, Wang KX. 2005. Long-term operation of biofilters for biological removal of ammonia. Chemosphere 58(8):1023.

Chen YX, Yin J, Wang KX, Fang S. 2004b. Effects of periods of nonuse and fluctuating ammonia concentration on biofilter performance. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 39(9):2447.

Cheremisinoff NP. 1999. Handbook of Hazardous Chemical Properties: Elsevier Butterworth- Heinemann. 1 p.

Cherry RS, Thompson DN. 1997. Shift from growth to nutrient-limited maintenance kinetics during biofilter acclimation. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 56(3):330-339.

Chitwood DE, Devinny JS, Reynolds FE, Jr. 1999. Evaluation of a two-stage biofilter for treatment of POTW waste air. Environmental Progress 18(3):212-221.

Cho K-S, Hirai M, Shoda M. 1991a. Degradation characteristics of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide by Thiobacillus thioparus DW44 isolated from peat biofilter. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 71(6):384-389.

Cho K-S, Hirai M, Shoda M. 1992a. Enhanced removability of odorous sulfur-containing gases by mixed cultures of purified bacteria from peat biofilters. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 73(3):219-224.

Cho K-S, Hirai M, Shoda M. 1992b. Enhanced removal efficiency of malodorous gases in a pilotscale peat biofilter inoculated with Thiobacillus thioparus DW44. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 73(1):46-50.

Cho K-S, Ryu HW, Lee NY. 2000. Biological deodorization of hydrogen sulfide using porous lava as a carrier of Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 90(1):25-31.

Cho K-S, Zhang L, Hirai M, Shoda M. 1991b. Removal characteristics of hydrogen sulphide and methanediol by Thiobacillus sp. isolated from peat in biological deodorization. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 71(1):44-49.

Cho KS, Hirai M, Shoda M. 1992c. Enhanced removability of odorous sulfur-containing gases by mixed cultures of purified bacteria from peat biofilters. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 73(3):219.

Chou M-S, Wang C-H. 2007. Treatment of Ammonia in Air Stream by Biotrickling Filger. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 7(1):17-32.

Chung Y-C, Huang C, Pan JR, Tseng C-P. 1998. Comparison of autotrophic and mixotrophic biofilters for H2S removal. Journal of Environmental Engineering (Reston, Virginia) 124(4):362-367.

Chung Y-C, Huang C, Rushing Pan J, Tseng C-P. 2000. Biotreatment of H2S and NH3 containing waste gases by co-immobilized cells biofilter. Chemosphere 41(3):329-336.

Chung Y-C, Huang C, Tseng C-P. 1996a. Biodegradation of Hydrogen Sulfide by a Laboratory- Scale Immobilized Pseudomonas putida CH11 Biofilter. Biotechnology Progress 12(6):773-778.

Chung Y-C, Huang C, Tseng C-P. 1996b. Operation optimization of Thiobacillus thioparus CH11 biofilter for hydrogen sulfide removal. Journal of Biotechnology 52(1):31-38.

Chung Y-C, Huang C, Tseng C-P. 1997a. Removal of hydrogen sulfide by immobilized Thiobacillus sp. strain CH11 in a biofilter. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 69(1):58-62.

Chung Y-C, Lin Y-Y, Tseng C-P. 2004a. Control of H2S waste gas emissions with a biological activated carbon filter. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 79(6):570-577.

Chung Y-C, Lin Y-Y, Tseng C-P. 2004b. Operational characteristics of effective removal of H2S and NH3 waste gases by activated carbon biofilter. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 54(4):450-458.

Chung Y-C, Ho KL, Tseng C-P. 2007. Two-stage biofilter for effective NH3 removal from waste gases containing high concentrations of H2S. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 57(3):337.

Chung Y-C, Huang C. 1998. Biotreatment of Ammonia in Air by an Immobilized Nitrosomonas europaea Biofilter. Environmental Progress 17(2):70.

Chung YC, Huang C, Tseng C-P. 1996c. Reduction of H2S/NH3 production from pig feces by controlling environmental conditions. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 31(1):139-155.

Chung Y-C, Huang C, Tseng C-P. 1997b. Biotreatment of ammonia from air by an immobilized Arthrobacter oxydans CH8 biofilter. Biotechnology Progress 13(6):794.

Chung YC, Huang C, Tseng C-P. 2001. Biological elimination of H2S and NH3 from waste gases by biofilter packed with immobilized heterotrophic bacteria. Chemosphere 43(8):1043- 1050.

Chung Y-C, Lin YY, Tseng C-P. 2004c. Control of H2S waste gas emissions with a biological activated carbon filter. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 79(6):570.

Chung Y-C, Lin YY, Tseng C-P. 2005. Removal of high concentration of NH3 and coexistent H2S by biological activated carbon (BAC) biotrickling filter. Bioresource Technology 96(16):1812.

Das Gracas Gomes M, Da Borges SSS, Lopes LGF, Franco DW. 1993. UV-visible spectrum of nitrous acid in solution: pK(a) determination and analytical applications. Analytica Chimica Acta 282(1):81.

Datta I, Fulthorpe RR, Sharma S, Allen DG. 2007. High-temperature biotrickling filtration of hydrogen sulphide. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 74(3):708-716.

de Bruijn P, van de Graaf AA, Jetten MSM, Robertson LA, Kuenen JG. 1995. Growth of Nitrosomonas europaea on hydroxylamine. FEMS Microbiology Letters 125(2-3):179-184.

de Ory I, Romero LE, Cantero D. 2004. Optimization of immobilization conditions for vinegar production. Siran, wood chips and polyurethane foam as carriers for Acetobacter aceti.

Process Biochemistry 39(5):547-555.

De Zwart JMM, Kuenen JG. 1992. C1-cycle of sulfur compounds. Biodegradation 3(1):37-59.

Dechant D, Ball P, Hatch C. 1999. Full scale validation of emerging bioscrubber technology for odor control. WEFTEC '99, Annual Conference & Exposition, 72nd, New Orleans, Oct. 9- 13, 1999:2965-2975.

Delhomenie MC, Heitz M. 2005. Biofiltration of air: A review. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 25(1-2):53.

Deshusses MA, Hamer G, Dunn IJ. 1995a. Behavior of biofilters for waste air biotreatment. 1.

Dynamic model development. Environmental Science and Technology 29(4):1048-1058.

Deshusses MA, Hamer G, Dunn IJ. 1995b. Behavior of biofilters for waste air biotreatment. 2.

Experimental evaluation of a dynamic model. Environmental Science and Technology 29(4):1059-1068.

Devinny JS, Chitwood DE. 2000. Two-stage biofiltration of sulfides and VOCs from wastewater treatment plants. Water Science and Technology 42(5-6, Waste Minimisation and End of Pipe Treatment in Chemical and Petrochemical Industries):411-418.

Devinny JS, Deshusses MA, Webster TS. 1999. Biofiltration for Air Pollution Control: Lewis Publishers.

Devinny JS, Medina VF, Hodge DS. Bench testing of fuel vapor treatment by biofiltration; 1991; Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute, Anaheim, California.

Duan H, Koe LCC, Yan R. 2005. Treatment of H2S using a horizontal biotrickling filter based on biological activated carbon: Reactor setup and performance evaluation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 67(1):143-149.

Duan H, Koe LCC, Yan R, Chen X. 2006. Biological treatment of H2S using pellet activated carbon as a carrier of microorganisms in a biofilter. Water Research 40(14):2629.

Duan H, Yan R, Koe LCC, Wang X. 2007. Combined effect of adsorption and biodegradation of biological activated carbon on H2S biotrickling filtration. Chemosphere 66(9):1684.

Elias A, Barona A, Arreguy A, Rios J, Aranguiz I, Peñas J. 2002. Evaluation of a packing material for the biodegradation of H2S and product analysis. Process Biochemistry 37(8):813-820.

Elías A, Barona A, Ríos FJ, Arreguy A, Munguira M, Peñas J, Sanz JL. 2000. Application of biofiltration to the degradation of hydrogen sulfide in gas effluents. Biodegradation 11(6):423-427.

EPA. 2003. Toxicological review of Hidrogen sulfide.

Ergun S. 1952. Fluid flow through packed columns. Chem. Eng. Prog. 48(2):89-94.

Ferguson WS, Koch WC, Webster LB, Gould JR. 1977. Human physiological response and adaption to ammonia. Journal of Occupational Medicine 19(5):319-26.

Focht DD, Verstraete W. 1977. Biochemical ecology of nitrification and denitrification. Advances in Microbial Ecology 1:135.

Friedrich CG, Rother D, Bardischewsky F, Ouentmeier A, Fischer J. 2001. Oxidation of Reduced Inorganic Sulfur Compounds by Bacteria: Emergence of a Common Mechanism? Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67(7):2873-2882.

Gabriel D, Cox HHJ, Deshusses MA. 2004. Conversion of full-scale wet scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S control at publicly owned treatment works. Journal of Environmental Engineering 130(10):1110-1117.

Gabriel D, Deshusses MA. 2003. Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(11):6308-6312.

Gang L, Van Grondelle J, Anderson BG, Van Santen RA. 1999. Selective low temperature NH3 oxidation to N2 on copper-based catalysts. Journal of Catalysis 186(1):100.

Gómez JM, Cantero D, Webb C. 2000. Immobilisation of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans cells on nickel alloy fiber for ferrous sulfate oxidation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 54(3):335-340.

Gracian C, Malhautier L, Fanlo JL, Le Cloirec P. 2002. Biofiltration of air loaded with ammonia by granulated sludge. Environmental Progress 21(4):237.

Guidotti TL. 1994. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide in the sour gas industry: some unresolved issues. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 66(3):153-60.

Hartikainen T, Ruuskanen J, Martikainen PJ. 2001. Carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide removal with a peat biofilter. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 51(3):387-392.

Hartikainen T, Ruuskanen J, Vanhatalo M, Martikainen PJ. 1996. Removal of ammonia from air by a peat biofilter. Environmental Technology 17(1):45.

Haug RT. 1993 The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering.

Helmers S, Top FH, Sr., Knapp LW, Jr. 1971. Ammonia injuries in agriculture. J Iowa Med Soc FIELD Full Journal Title:Journal of the Iowa Medical Society 61(5):271-80.

Hentz LH, Murray CM, Thompson JL, Gasner LL, Dunson JB. 1990. Odor control research at the Montgomery county regional compost facility. The Water Pollution Control Specialty Conference Series - The Status of Municipal Sludge Management for the 1990s.

Hirai M, Kamamoto M, Yani M, Shoda M. 2001a. Comparison of the biological H2S removal characteristics among four inorganic packing materials. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 91(4):396-402.

Hirai M, Kamamoto M, Yani M, Shoda M. 2001b. Comparison of the biological NH3 removal characteristics among four inorganic packing materials. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 91(4):428.

Hirai M, Ohtake M, Shoda M. 1990. Removal kinetics of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide by peat biofilters. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 70(5):334- 339.

Hodge DS, Devinny JS. 1995. Modeling removal of air contaminants by biofiltration. Journal of Environmental Engineering (New York) 121(1):21-32.

Hodge DS, Devinny JS. 1997. Determination of transfer rate constants and partition coefficients for air phase biofilters. Journal of Environmental Engineering (New York) 123(6):577-585.

Hodge DS, Medina VF, Islander RL, Devinny JS. 1991. Treatment of hydrocarbon fuel vapors in biofilters. Environmental Technology 12(8):655-62.

Hong JH, Park KJ. 2005. Compost biofiltration of ammonia gas from bin composting. Bioresource Technology 96(6):741.

Hori K, Yamashita S, Ishii S, Kitagawa M, Tanji Y, Unno H. 2001. Isolation, characterization and application to off-gas treatment of toluene-degrading bacteria. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 34(9):1120-1126.

Hunik JH, Meijer HJG, Tramper J. 1992. Kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea at extreme substrate, product and salt concentrations. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 37(6):802.

Hyman MR, Wood PM. 1983. Methane oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea. Biochemical Journal 212(1):31.

Hyman MR, Wood PM. 1984. Ethylene oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea. Archives of Microbiology 137(2):155.

Hyman MR, Wood PM. 1985. Suicidal inactivation and labelling of ammonia mono-oxygenase by acetylene. Biochemical Journal 227(3):719.

ICSC. 2003a. International Chemical Safety Card 0165.

ICSC. 2003b. International Chemical Safety Card 0414.

INE. 2007. Cuentas satélite sobre emisiones atmosféricas. Serie 1990 y 1995-2003. In: Estadística INd, editor.

Jensen AB, Webb C. 1995a. Ferrous sulphate oxidation using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: A review. Process Biochemistry 30(3):225.

Jensen AB, Webb C. 1995b. Treatment of H2S-containing gases: A review of microbiological alternatives. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 17(1):2.

Jin Y, Veiga MC, Kennes C. 2005a. Autotrophic deodorization of hydrogen sulfide in a biotrickling filter. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 80(9):998-1004.

Jin Y, Veiga MC, Kennes C. 2005b. Effects of pH, CO2, and flow pattern on the autotrophic degradation of hydrogen sulfide in a biotrickling filter. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 92(4):462-471.

Jones K, Martinez A, Rizwan M, Boswell J. 2005. Sulfur toxicity and media capacity for H2S removal in biofilters packed with a natural or a commercial granular medium. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 55(4):415-420.

Jones KD, Martinez A, Maroo K, Deshpande S, Boswell J. 2004. Kinetic Evaluation of H2S and NH3 Biofiltration for Two Media Used for Wastewater Lift Station Emissions. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 54(1):24-35.

Juliette LY, Hyman MR, Arp DJ. 1993. Inhibition of ammonia oxidation in Nitrosomonas europaea by sulfur compounds: Thioethers are oxidized to sulfoxides by ammonia monooxygenase. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59(11):3718.

Kanagawa T, Qi HW, Okubo T, Tokura N. 2004. Biological treatment of ammonia gas at high loading. Water Science and Technology 50(4):283.

Kangas J, Savolainen H. 1987. Urinary thiosulphate as an indicator of exposure to hydrogen sulphide vapour. Clinica Chimica Acta 164(1):7-10.

Karnofski MA. 1975. Odor generation in the kraft process. Journal of Chemical Education 52(8):490-2.

Kelleher BP, Leahy JJ, Henihan AM, O'Dwyer TF, Sutton D, Leahy MJ. 2002. Advances in poultry litter disposal technology - A review. Bioresource Technology 83(1):27.

Kelly DP. 1999a. Thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation by chemolithotrophic sulfur bacteria in relation to the sulfur oxidation pathways. Archives of Microbiology 171(4):219.

Kelly DP. 1999b. Thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation by chemolithotrophic sulfur bacteria in relation to the sulfur oxidation pathways. Archives of Microbiology 171:219- 229.

Kelly DP. 2003. Microbial Inorganic Sulfur Oxidation: The APS Pathway. In: Ljungdahl LG, editor. Biochemistry and Physiology of Anaerobic Bacteria. New York: Springer. p 270.

Kelly DP, Shergill JK, Lu W-P, Wood AP. 1997. Oxidative metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds by bacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology 71:95-107.

Kelly DP, Smith NA. 1990. Organic sulfur compounds in the environment. Biogeochemistry, microbiology, and ecological aspects. Advances in Microbial Ecology 11:345-85.

Kennes C, Thalasso F. 1998. Waste gas biotreatment technology. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 72(4):303-319.

Kim C-W, Park J-S, Cho S-K, Oh K-J, Kim Y-S, Kim D. 2003. Removal of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and benzene by fluidized bed reactor and biofilter. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 13(2):301-304.

Kim H, Kim YJ, Chung JS, Xie Q. 2002a. Long-term operation of a biofilter for simultaneous removal of H2S and NH3. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 52(12):1389-1398.

Kim H, Xie Q, Kim YJ, Chung JS. 2002b. Biofiltration of ammonia gas with sponge cubes coated with mixtures of activated carbon and zeolite. Environmental Technology 23(8):839-847.

Kim JH, Rene ER, Park HS. 2007a. Biological oxidation of hydrogen sulfide under steady and transient state conditions in an immobilized cell biofilter. Bioresource Technology In Press, Corrected Proof.

Kim JH, Rene ER, Park HS. 2007b. Performance of an immobilized cell biofilter for ammonia removal from contaminated air stream. Chemosphere 68(2):274.

Kim NJ, Shoda M. 2002. Removal of a high load of ammonia by a marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus in biofilter. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 7(5):316-322.

Kim NJ, Sugano Y, Hirai M, Shoda M. 2000. Removal characteristics of high load ammonia gas by a biofilter seeded with a marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus. Biotechnology Letters 22(16):1295-1299.

Kim S, Deshusses MA. 2003. Development and experimental validation of a conceptual model for biotrickling filtration of H2S. Environmental Progress 22(2):119-128.

Kim S, Deshusses MA. 2005. Understanding the limits of H2S degrading biotrickling filters using a differential biotrickling filter. Chemical Engineering Journal 113(2-3):119-126.

Koe LCC, Yang F. 2000. A bioscrubber for hydrogen sulfide removal. Water Science and Technology 41(6, Control and Prevention of Odours in the Water Industry):141-145.

Kohl AL, Nielsen R. 1997. Gas Purificaton: Elsevier. 1 p.

Kok HJG. 1992. Bioscrubbing of air contaminated with high concentrations of hydrocarbons. Studies in Environmental Science 51(Biotech. Air Pollut. Abatement Odour Control Policies):77-82.

Kosteltz AM, Finkelstein A, Sears G. 1996. What are the "real opportunities" in biological gas cleaning for North America. Proceedings, Annual Meeting - Air & Waste Management Association 89th.

Kowalchuk GA, Stephen JR. 2001. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: A model for molecular microbial ecology. Annual Review of Microbiology 55:485.

Krüger HC. 2001. Modelling H2S biofiltration to predict solid sulphur formation [Master of Science]. Edmonton: University of Alberta. 172 p.

Krupa SV. 2003. Effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on terrestrial vegetation: a review. Environmental Pollution (Oxford, United Kingdom) 124(2):179-221.

Lecomte I, Martin G, Laplanche A, Lemasle M, Bloquel M. 1995. Odour pollution in carcass processing plants. Identification and characterization of malodorous flux. Odours & VOC's J.(1):39-40.

Lee EY, Cho K-S, Ryu Hee W. 2005. Simultaneous removal of H2S and NH3 in biofilter inoculated with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TAS. Journal of bioscience and bioengineering 99(6):611-5.

Lee EY, Cho KS, Han HD, Ryu HW. 2002. Hydrogen sulfide effects on ammonia removal by a biofilter seeded with earthworm casts. Journal of Environmental Quality 31(6):1782-1788.

Lee EY, Lee NY, Cho KS, Ryu HW. 2006. Removal of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-resistant Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZ11. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 101(4):309.

Leson G, Chavira R, Winer A, Hodge D. 1995. Experiences with a full-scale biofilter for control of ethanol emissions. Proceedings of the 88th Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the Air & Waste Management Association. June 18-23, 1995. San Diego.

Lewis WK, Whitman WG. 1924. Principles of gas absorption. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry (Washington, D. C.) 16:1215-20.

Li H, Mihelcic JR, Crittenden JC, Anderson KA. 2003. Field Measurements and Modeling of Two- Stage Biofilter that Treats Odorous Sulfur Air Emissions. Journal of Environmental Engineering (Reston, VA, United States) 129(8):684-692.

Liang Y, Quan X, Chen J, Chung JS, Sung JY, Chen S, Xue D, Zhao Y. 2000. Long-term results of ammonia removal and transformation by biofiltration. Journal of Hazardous Materials 80(1-3):259.

Lomans BP, Pol A, Op den Camp HJ. 2002. Microbial cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds in anoxic environments. Water Science and Technology 45(10):55-60.

Loy J, Flauger M. Biological elimination of styrene contaminated waste gas with the Zander biotrickling technology; 1996 1996.

Ma Y-L, Yang B-L, Zhao J-L. 2006a. Removal of H2S by Thiobacillus denitrificans immobilized on different matrices. Bioresour Technol FIELD Full Journal Title:Bioresource technology 97(16):2041-6.

Ma Y, Zhao J, Yang B. 2006b. Removal of H2S in waste gases by an activated carbon bioreactor. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 57(2):93.

Madjid M. 2005. Biological Treatment of Waste Gases Containing Inorganic Compounds. Biotechnology for Odor and Air Pollution Control. p 253.

Malhautier L, Gracian C, Roux J-C, Fanlo J-L, Le Cloirec P. 2003a. Biological treatment process of air loaded with an ammonia and hydrogen sulfide mixture. Chemosphere 50(1):145-153.

Malhautier L, Gracian C, Roux JC, Fanlo JL, Le Cloirec P. 2003b. Biological treatment process of air loaded with an ammonia and hydrogen sulfide mixture. Chemosphere 50(1):145.

Manero M-H. 1997. Industrial Air Pollution: Removal of dilute Gaseous Vapors. In: R.K Jain YA, C. Cabussud, M. Roustan, S.P. Shelton, editor. Environmental Technologies and Trends. International and Policy Perspectives: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K. p 93-97.

Mansfield LA, Melnyk PB, Richardson GC. 1992. Selection and full-scale use of a chelated iron absorbent for odor control. Water Environment Research 64(2):120.

Martin G, Lemasle M, Taha S. 1996. The control of gaseous nitrogen pollutant removal in a fixed peat bed reactor. Journal of Biotechnology 46(1):15.

Melse RW, Mol G. 2004. Odour and ammonia removal from pig house exhaust air using a biotrickling filter. Water Science and Technology 50(4):275-288.

Mesa MM, Macias M, Cantero D. 2002. Mathematical Model of the Oxidation of Ferrous Iron by a Biofilm of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Biotechnology Progress 18(4):679-685.

Moe WM, Irvine RL. 2000. Polyurethane foam medium for biofiltration. II: Operation and performance. Journal of Environmental Engineering 126(9):826-832.

Morgan-Sagastume JM, Noyola A. 2006. Hydrogen sulfide removal by compost biofiltration: Effect of mixing the filter media on operational factors. Bioresource Technology 97(13):1546.

Morton RL, Caballero RC. Removing hydrogen sulfide from wastewater treatment facilities' air process streams with a biotrickling filter; 1997 1997.

Muirhead T, LaFond P, Dennis D. 1993. Air handling and scrubber retrofits optimize odor control. Biocycle 3:68.

Nemati M, Harrison STL, Hansford GS, Webb C. 1998. Biological oxidation of ferrous sulphate by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: A review on the kinetic aspects. Biochemical Engineering Journal 1(3):171.

Ng YL, Yan R, Chen XG, Geng AL, Gould WD, Liang DT, Koe LCC. 2004. Use of activated carbon as a support medium for H2S biofiltration and effect of bacterial immobilization on available pore surface. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 66(3):259-265.

Nishimura S, Yoda M. 1997. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from an anaerobic biogas using a bigscrubber. Water Science and Technology 36(6-7):349-356.

Ottengraf SPP. 1986. Exhaust gas purification. Biotechnology. p 425-52.

Ottengraf SPP, Van den Oever AHC. 1983. Kinetics of organic compound removal from waste gases with a biological filter. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25(12):3089-102.

Oyarzun P, Arancibia F, Canales C, Aroca GE. 2003. Biofiltration of high concentration of hydrogen sulphide using Thiobacillus thioparus. Process Biochemistry (Oxford, United Kingdom) 39(2):165-170.

Pagans EL, Font X, Sanchez A. 2005. Biofiltration for ammonia removal from composting exhaust gases. Chemical Engineering Journal 113(2-3):105.

Pagella C, Perego P, Zilli M. 1996. Biotechnological H2S gas treatment with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Chemical Engineering and Technology 19(1):79.

Park BG, Chung JS. 2006. Biokinetics on simultaneous biofiltration of H2S, NH3 and toluene in waste air. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 23(3):428.

Park JY, Lee YN. 1988. Solubility and decomposition kinetics of nitrous acid in aqueous solution. Journal of Physical Chemistry 92(22):6294.

Park S-J, Cho K-S, Hirai M, Shoda M. 1993. Removability of malodorous gases from a night soil treatment plant by a pilot-scale peat biofilter inoculated with Thiobacillus thioparus DW44. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 76(1):55-59.

Park SJ, Nam SI, Choi ES. 2001. Removal of odor emitted from composting facilities using a porous ceramic biofilter. Water Science and Technology 44(9):301-308.

Peck HD, Jr., Fisher E, Jr. 1962. Oxidation of thiosulfate and phosphorylation in extracts of Thiobacillus thioparus. Journal of Biological Chemistry 237:190-7.

Peck HD, Sr. 1962. Symposium on metabolism of inorganic compounds. V. Comparative metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in microorganisms. Bacteriological Reviews 26:67-94.

Perry RH, Green DW, James OM. 2001. Manual del Ingeniero Químico. Madrid: McGraw-Hill.

Pinjing H, Liming S, Zhiwen Y, Guojian L. 2001. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan by a packed tower with immobilized micro-organism beads. Water Science and Technology 44(9):327-333.

Poth M. 1986. Dinitrogen production from nitrite by a Nitrosomonas isolate. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 52(4):957-9.

Potivichayanon S, Pokethitiyook P, Kruatrachue M. 2006. Hydrogen sulfide removal by a novel fixed-film bioscrubber system. Process Biochemistry (Oxford, United Kingdom) 41(3):708-715.

Prosser JI. 1989. Autotrophic nitrification in bacteria. Advances in microbial physiology 30:125- 181.

Qiu G-l, Li Y-l, Zhao K. 2006. Thiobacillus thioparus immobilized by magnetic porous beads: Preparation and characteristic. Enzyme and Microbial Technology In Press, Corrected Proof.

Ramirez EL, Corona JH, Dendooven L, Rangel P, Thalasso F. 2003. Characterization of five agricultural by-products as potential biofilter carriers. Bioresource Technology 88(3):259.

Rasche ME, Hicks RE, Hyman MR, Arp DJ. 1990. Oxidation of monohalogenated ethanes and nchlorinated alkanes by whole cells of Nitrosomonas europaea. Journal of Bacteriology 172(9):5368.

Regina N. 2006. Odors Treatment: Physicochemical Technologies. Odors in the Food Industry. p 105.

Riordan E, Minogue N, Healy D, O'Driscoll P, Sodeau JR. 2005. Spectroscopic and optimization modeling study of nitrous acid in aqueous solution. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 109(5):779.

Rodier J. 1998. Análisis de las aguas: Ediciones Omega, S.A. Barcelona.

Ruokojärvi A, Ruuskanen J, Martikainen PJ, Olkkonen M. 2001. Oxidation of gas mixtures containing dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and methanethiol using a two-stage biotrickling filter. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 51(1):11-16.

Ruth JH. 1986. Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal (1958-1999) 47(3):A-142-A-151.

Sakano Y, Kerkhof L. 1998. Assessment of changes in microbial community structure during operation of an ammonia biofilter with molecular tools. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(12):4877.

Sakuma T, Aoki M, Hattori T, Gabriel D, Deshusses MA. A conceptual model for the treatment of ammonia vapors in a biotrickling filter; 2004. p 1531.

Schieder D, Quicker P, Schneider R, Winter H, Prechtl S, Faulstich M. 2003. Microbiological removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas by means of a separate biofilter system: experience with technical operation. Water Science and Technology 48(4, Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes III):209-212.

Sercu B, Boon N, Verstraete W, Van Langenhove H. 2006. H2S degradation is reflected by both the activity and composition of the microbial community in a compost biofilter. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 72(5):1090.

Sercu B, Van Langenhove H, Boon N, Verstraete W, Núnez D, Aroca G. 2005a. Inoculation and start-up of a biotricking filter removing dimethyl sulfide. Chemical Engineering Journal 113(2-3):127-134.

Sercu B, Van Langenhove H, Nuñez D, Aroca G, Verstraete W. 2005b. Operational and microbiological aspects of a bioaugmented two-stage biotrickling filter removing hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 90(2):259-269.

Shahmansouri MR, Taghipour H, Bina B, Movahedian H. 2005. Biological Removal of Ammonia from Contaminated Air Streams Using Biofiltration System. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health, Science and Engineering 2(2):17-25.

Shareefdeen Z, Baltzis BC, Oh Y-S, Bartha R. 1993. Biofiltration of methanol vapor. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 41(5):512-524.

Sheridan B, Curran T, Dodd V, Colligan J. 2002a. Biofiltration of odour and ammonia from a pig unit - A pilot-scale study. Biosystems Engineering 82(4):441.

Sheridan BA, Curran TP, Dodd VA. 2002b. Assessment of the influence of media particle size on the biofiltration of odorous exhaust ventilation air from a piggery facility. Bioresource Technology 84(2):129.

Shinabe K, Oketani S, Ochi T, Kanchanatawee S, Matsumura M. 2000. Characteristics of hydrogen sulfide removal in a carrier-packed biological deodorization system. Biochemical Engineering Journal 5(3):209-217.

Shinabe K, Oketani S, Ochi T, Matsumura M. 1995. Characteristics of hydrogen sulfide removal by Thiobacillus thiooxidans KS1 isolated from a carrier-packed biological deodorization system. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 80(6):592-598.

Shojaosadati SA, Elyasi S. 1999. Removal of hydrogen sulfide by the compost biofilter with sludge of leather industry. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 27(1-2):139-144.

Shrestha NK, Hadano S, Kamachi T, Okura I. 2001. Conversion of ammonia to dinitrogen in wastewater by Nitrosomonas europaea. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part A Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology 90(3):221.

Shrestha NK, Hadano S, Kamachi T, Okura I. 2002. Dinitrogen production from ammonia by Nitrosomonas europaea. Applied Catalysis A: General 237(1-2):33-39.

Smeets MAM, Bulsing PJ, van Rooden S, Steinmann R, de Ru JA, Ogink NWM, van Thriel C, Dalton PH. 2007. Odor and Irritation Thresholds for Ammonia: A Comparison between Static and Dynamic Olfactometry. Chemical Senses 32(1):11-20.

Smet E, Van Langenhove H. 1998. Abatement of volatile organic sulfur compounds in odorous emissions from the bio-industry. Biodegradation 9(3-4):273-284.

Smet E, Van Langenhove H, Lens P. 1998. Treatment of waste gases contaminated with odorous sulfur compounds. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 28(1):89- 117.

Smet E, Van Langenhove H, Maes K. 2000. Abatement of high concentrated ammonia loaded waste gases in compost biofilters. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 119(1-4):177-190.

Smidsrod O, Skjak-Braek G. 1990. Alginate as immobilization matrix for cells. Trends in Biotechnology 8(3):71.

Sorokin DY, Foti M, Tindall BJ, Muyzer G. 2007. Desulfurispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov. sp. nov., a novel obligately anaerobic sulfur- and dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterium from a full-scale sulfide-removing bioreactor. Extremophiles 11(2):363.

Stein LY, Arp DJ. 1998a. Ammonium limitation results in the loss of ammonia oxidizing activity in Nitrosomonas europaea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(4):1514-1521.

Stein LY, Arp DJ. 1998b. Loss of ammonia monooxygenase activity in Nitrosomonas europaea upon exposure to nitrite. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(10):4098-4102.

Stepanov AL, Korpela TK. 1997. Microbial basis for the biotechnological removal of nitrogen oxides from flue gases. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 25(2):97.

Stetter KO, Fiala G, Huber G, Huber R, Segerer A. 1990. Hyperthermophilic microorganisms. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 75(2-3):117-124.

Streese J, Schlegelmilch M, Heining K, Stegmann R. 2005. A macrokinetic model for dimensioning of biofilters for VOC and odour treatment. Waste Management (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 25(9):965-974.

Sublette KL, Sylvester ND. 1987. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by Thiobacillus denitrificans: Desulfurization of natural gas. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 29(2):249-257.

Suzuki I, Dular U, Kwok SC. 1974. Ammonia or ammonium ion as substrate for oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea cells and extracts. Journal of Bacteriology 120(1):556.

Svendsen K. 2001. The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and The Duthc Expert Committee on Occupational Standards. I27. Hydrogen Sulphide. Marklund S, editor.

Syed M, Soreanu G, Falletta P, Be?land M. 2006. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using biological processes - A review. Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 48.

Syed MA, Syed MA, Henshaw PF. 2003. Effect of tube size on performance of a fixed-film tubular bioreactor for conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. Effect of Tube Size and Light Source on Performance of a Fixed-film Photobioreactor for Conversion of Hydrogen Sulphur 37(8):1932.

Taghipour H, Shahmansoury MR, Bina B, Movahdian H. 2006. Comparison of the biological NH3 removal characteristics of a three stage biofilter with a one stage biofilter. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 3(4):417-424.

Tanji Y, Kanagawa T, Mikami E. 1989. Removal of dimethyl sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and hydrogen sulfide by immobilized Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 67(4):280-285.

Vadivelu VM, Keller J, Yuan Z. 2006. Stoichiometric and kinetic characterisation of Nitrosomonas sp. in mixed culture by decoupling the growth and energy generation processes. Journal of Biotechnology 126(3):342.

Vairavamurthy A, Manowitz B, Luther GW, III, Jeon Y. 1993. Oxidation state of sulfur in thiosulfate and implications for anaerobic energy metabolism. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57(7):1619-23.

Van Durme GP, McNamara BF, McGinley CM. 1992. Bench-scale removal of odor and volatile organic compounds at a composting facility. Water Environment Research 64(1):19.

van Ginkel CG, Tramper J, Luyben KCAM, Klapwijk A. 1983. Characterization of Nitrosomonas europaea immobilized in calcium alginate. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 5(4):297- 303.

Van Groenestijn JW, Hesselink PGM. 1993. Biotechniques for air pollution control. Biodegradation 4(4):283-301.

Van Groenestijn JW, Kraakman NJR. 2005. Recent developments in biological waste gas purification in Europe. Chemical Engineering Journal 113(2-3):85-91.

Van de Velde F, D. Lourenço N, M. Pinheiro H, Bakker M. 2002. Carrageenan: A Food-Grade and Biocompatible Support for Immobilisation Techniques. Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis 344(8):815-835.

Varesche MB, Zaiat M, Vieira LGT, Vazoller RF, Foresti E. 1997. Microbial colonization of polyurethane foam matrixes in horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized-sludge reactor. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 48(4):534-538.

Wani AH, Branion RMR, Lau AK. 1998. Effects of periods of starvation and fluctuating hydrogen sulfide concentration on biofilter dynamics and performance. Journal of Hazardous Materials 60(3):287-303.

Wani AH, Lau AK, Branion RMR. 1999. Biofiltration control of pulping odors - hydrogen sulfide: performance, macrokinetics and coexistence effects of organo-sulfur species. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 74(1):9-16.

Wark K, Warner CF, Davis WT. 2004. Contaminación del Aire. Origen y control: Prentice Hall. Wijfels RH, Schepers AW, Smit M, De Gooijer CD, Tramper J. 1994. Effect of initial biomass concentration on the growth of immobilized Nitrosomonas europaea. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 42(1):153.

Wijffels RH, Tramper J. 1989. Performance of growing Nitrosomonas europaea cells immobilized in k-carrageenan. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 32(1):108-12.

Wiley-VCH, editor. 2002. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Sixth Edition.

Williams TO, Miller FC. 1992. Odor control using biofilters. Biocycle 33(10):72.

Wood PM. 1986. Nitrification as a bacterial energy source. Nitrification:39.

Wrage N, Velthof GL, Oenema O, Laanbroek HJ. 2004. Acetylene and oxygen as inhibitors of nitrous oxide production in Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosospira briensis: a cautionary tale. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 47(1):13-18.

Wu L, Loo Y-Y, Koe LCC. 2001. A pilot study of a biotrickling filter for the treatment of odorous sewage air. Water Science and Technology 44(9):295-299.

Yang Y, Allen ER. 1994a. Biofiltration control of hydrogen sulfide. 1. Design and operational parameters. Air & Waste 44(7):863-8.

Yang Y, Allen ER. 1994b. Biofiltration control of hydrogen sulfide. 2. Kinetics, biofilter performance, and maintenance. Air & Waste 44(11):1315-21.

Yani M, Hirai M, Shoda M. 1998a. Ammonia gas removal characteristics using biofilter with activated carbon fiber as a carrier. Environmental Technology 19(7):709-715.

Yani M, Hirai M, Shoda M. 1998b. Removal kinetics of ammonia by peat biofilter seeded with night soil sludge. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 85(5):502.

Zhang L, Hirai M, Shoda M. 1991. Removal characteristics of dimethyl sulfide, methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide by Hyphomicrobrium sp. I55 isolated from peat biofilter. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 72(5):392-396.